Teeth are composed of four different tissues:
ENAMEL is the outer white layer which is very hard and acts as a protective helmet.
DENTINE is the next layer and constitute the major part of the tooth.
DENTAL PULP is located in the centre of the tooth and is composed of blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels and connective tissue.
CEMENTUM is the outer layer which covers the root
Dental caries is a clinical name for tooth decay. It is a destructive process which causes decalcification of the tooth.
Gingivitis is inflammation of gums mainly caused by plaque deposits. Gums become red, swollen, and bleed easily.
If gingivitis left untreated it progresses to Periodontitis. It is a severe and irreversible form of gum disease and may destroy the tissues that hold the tooth in the bone. As a result, teeth may become loose.